Q: My wife’s Social Security retirement will be much more than mine. If I start my own Social Security retirement before she starts hers, can I apply later as a husband on her record once she retires and applies for benefits?
A: Yes, a husband or wife can start their own SSA retirement first and then look into spousal benefits when their wife or husband retires.
Social Security benefits to a husband or wife are based on a comparison of the couples individual full retirement age (FRA) amounts, not their monthly retirement amounts. To learn about benefits to a husband or wife, including to a divorced spouse, go to the Retirement Planner section of the SSA website at www.socialsecurity.gov/retire2/, and then to “how members of your family may qualify for benefits.”
Age when starting Social Security is important. If younger than full retirement age (FRA) when filing for retirement, a person is considered to also be applying as wife or husband at the same time, assuming both members of the couple will then be receiving benefits. Her or his own retirement amount, reduced for age, is received first. If spousal benefits are payable they, also reduced for age, are added to equal the higher total amount.
A different opportunity for spousal benefits exists if either husband or wife has reached full retirement age (FRA), especially if that person plans to continue working full-time past FRA. Generally, members of a person’s family can receive benefits on his or her record only when that person does. For an exception, see “If you or your spouse are full retirement age” in the spousal benefit section. If a person is at least FRA, and does not want to start Social Security retirement yet, an exception called “file and suspend” allows payment of spousal benefits on their record while the person delays the start his or her own Social Security retirement. Past FRA, delaying the start of your own retirement benefit lets the amount increase up to age 70 due to delayed retirement credits.
If this “file and suspend” idea is of interest, remember that the annual earnings test ends with the month you reach FRA so another option could be to file for your Social Security retirement while continuing to work. You would not gain delayed retirement credits but you would receive all your retirement and, if eligible as a spouse, your husband or wife would also receive through your record. Each of these ideas has advantages or disadvantages based on your personal situation.